Dr.s strain diagram cropped .png

Pineywoods Cattle Foundation

Strain Preservation 

With the help of small and large breeders alike, we hope to ensure that no further strains are lost to extinction.

For more history on the strains be sure to read An Overview and History of Pineywoods Cattle

Independent- Strains with enough genetic material to maintain their own individual status with less than 1/8th influence from other strains, These strains are in excellent or fair condition.

High Risk- Independent but the level of other strain influence is greater than 1/8th. These are in need of dedicated breeders now to prevent extinction. These strains are in poor or critical condition.

Contributors- These Strains still contribute to important genetic diversity in composite herds, but are extinct on their own.

Image by Spencer  Watson




Carter, Charlie




High Risk



Carter, Luther




Yeller Griffen

Olla Ladner

Palmer Dunn










These tend to be medium size Pineywoods, with short to medium length, wide set horns. some having a Spanish twit to the horns. Originally they tended to be fairly uniformly colored, with colored spots or speckling on a white base, or the reverse white on a colored base. 

The original Agricola cattle traced back to herds in the Agricola, Mississippi and surrounding areas. Many of these cattle were collected by Luther Schell and Bo Howard, who later added bulls from Conway, Bayliss and Carter lines. They started using the cows for cross breeding in the early 2000's. This lead to Thomas Allen purchasing most of the remaining Agricola cows in 2006 in order to continue the conservation work.

The original Knapp came from Beau’s in-laws. Over the years he added in the occasional Agricola bull from Luther Schell. This makes sense because the two breeders were located close to one another. However, it seems that this was done only occasionally so while the Agricola (Schell) and Knapp (Howard) herds are related, they should also be somewhat distinct. Whether to put them together or not is a good question.- Dr. Philip Sponenberg

There are only a couple of dedicated Agricola-Knapp herds left.


Barnes cattle vary widely in size, horn shape and color. Most are color sided, color pointed or caped, with black ears and noses. Colors includes blacks, blues, reds,brows and tans. Solid colors happen but are uncommon.

The Barnes cattle come from Alabama, and subsequently traveled into the panhandle of Florida flowing the Yellow river. Because of this the Barnes lines of cattle are one of a few lines that can be registered by both the Pineywoods Cattle Registries and the Florida Cracker Cattle Association. Billy Barnes still owns a small herd of the original cattle, but most of the current Barnes cattle are owned by non-decedents today.

Read more information on Barnes history in the 2010 publication "An Overview and History of Pineywoods Cattle" HERE


This strain started out as a mix of several older strains. Jack Bayliss married into the Carter family and from there build up his own herd in Petal Mississippi. In the early days Jake brought in Thornhill and Carter, but his favorite was Griffen. You could see a lot of early Griffen influence in his herd. Jacks herd was as many as 400 and averaged about 160 but in the late 1990's due to heath was reduced down to less than 30.

The Bayliss strain came in a rainbow of color and patterns including: black, red, brown, brindle, yellow, dove, color-sided, white with dark points, and roan. These cattle were large framed and heavy horned. The recollection was that they were heavy milkers with a fairly wild disposition. 


Bounds cattle dwindled to a cow and a bull owned by the Diamonds. They used an extensive breeding program to capture as much of the Bounds genetics they could. The Diamond herd represents some of the only higher percentage Bounds cattle left today.    


Broadus cattle tend to be on the small-medium size. The guinea gene shows up in this line more than in others, with some non guinea cattle still being nearly as small as the guineas. These cattle tend to have a lot of white. They may be color-sided, caped, white faced or brindle marked in addition to the typical spotting and speckling patterns. Their horns are medium length with an up and out twist.

The family herd has dwindled since its historic numbers (more than 400), and outside the family there are few conservation breeders actively working with the this line.

Carter, Charlie

These are a medium sized cattle, with medium to long horns turning upward (some with a twist). They are typically color sided or roan with a variety of shades of red and yellow. It is not uncommon for calves to darken with age to include some mild black pigment. Less common are browns, blacks and brindled calves. Carter cattle have been said to be more aggressive/wild than other line, particularly the bulls.

The Carter cattle history starts with Print Carter. Orphaned at nine years old- Print carter made his way with hard work and survival instinct. In his teen he drove a herd of red cattle he liked across the Pearl river. Those cattle represent the majority of the ancestry of the Carter cattle. In the 50s grandson Charlie Carter became friends with the Thornhills, and added Thornhill influence into the herd. Charlie still maintains a large herd today. 

Read the full story on Print carter and the Carter history in the 2010 publication "An Overview and History of Pineywoods Cattle" HERE

Carter, Luther

Luther Carter was the son of Print Carter, and father of Charlie Carter. Although very similar the cattle Luther kept had some minor differences from the Grandfather and subsequently, the grandson.

Read Carter history in the 2010 publication "An Overview and History of Pineywoods Cattle" HERE


Conway cattle are all some variety of red and white. Medium sized with a (reportedly) tame disposition. Polled genetics exist but are rare.

Conway cattle started with Bura Conway taking over the management of his fathers herd in 1910 at age 14. the last outside influence was a half Devon bull in the 40's. Bura Conway was made famous for his team of oxen when he won a local logging competition, afterwards selling seed stock all over the area. Conway cattle represent one of the most successful lines of Pineywoods today.   

Read more information on Bura Conway and the Conway history in the 2010 publication "An Overview and History of Pineywoods Cattle" HERE


There are very few pure Dedeaux left, mostly in the hands of several decedents in Mississippi. Many of these cows are currently being put with Angus bulls- for the the 'black calf' market. This strain was at extreme risk of extinction ten years ago, and today its status has not changed much. If no one steps in and starts a conservation herd soon, the Dedeaux will likely be lost.

Dedeaux are medium sized blocky cattle. Their horns tend to moderately sized, going straight out and turning up sharply.  At one point they came in many colors, but now are mostly bridle and white. There used to be a guinea (Dwarf) gene in this line, but that may be gone as well.  


Diamond  cattle vary in size, but many are large and rangy. They come in just about every color and pattern. Diamond cattle are reported to be heavy milkers compared to other Pineywoods. 

The Diamond herd is  from Howzion, MS. It contains a variety of some of the most rare pineywoods genetics out there. Fred Diamond started with his fathers stock and over time added many old strains that were typical of that area. Some are found no where else in the breed today. 

Diamond, Seal, Bounds, Ladner, Hickman, Griffin and Broadus are all all found in this herd. Fred Diamond keeps excellent track of his cattle's pedigree to ensure the rare bloodlines continue to influence the genetics in his herd.


The Ezell cattle were raised in the panhandle of Florida, but the foundation stock came from Alabama. For this reason Ezell are recognized by the Pineywoods registries AND the Florida Cracker Cattle Association.

These are medium sized blocky cattle, with upward turned horns. Some Ezell were originally polled. Ezell were light brown to red, cream, and black, some having Pinzgauer type markings. Some had a bit of a dewlap (loose neck skin) which may have been evidence of early Brahma/Zebu cross breeding.

Yeller Griffen

Griffen cattle were medium-large for Pineywoods. They were yellow with thick proportions and long-broad heads.  Their horns were broad with a distinctly Spanish upward and outward twist. They very closely resembled the Spanish cattle of their time.  

This line of cattle got down to only a couple of animals. It is only though the dedicated breeding efforts of two breeders that a small number of high percentage Griffen now exist. More dedicated effort is needed to keep the program alive long term.

Today these percentage Griffens vary a bit more in color (They may have white, or be darker in color) and horn shape, but cattle do pop up that very closely resemble the originals.

 Read more on the history of the Griffens paper company HERE


These tend to be on the large and rangy side, with long faces. They also tend to have longer horns, either with a Spanish twist or out and straight up. Colors ranged greatly. Colors and patterns include black, brown, brindle, red, dove, roan, color-sided, caped, spotted and speckled. 

Hickmen and Ladnier/Lander cattle ranged very close to each other, and therefor were similar. In the 1960's the stock law put and end to range cattle and the two strains were forces much closer together. 

The Hickmen herd once numbered in the thousands. With the loss of range land and and the eventual death of the J.R. Hickmen in the 1980's, the herd dwindled down to less than 100. The efforts of two conservation breeders resulted in the saving, and eventual recovery of this strain.   


Holt are small to medium, and blocky. Horns are short to medium, some crumpled- some twisting out. Colors include red and black, most are color-sided. 

The Holt line came from Hawkinsville Georgia originally. In about 1917 (after 100 years in Hawkinsville) the herd was moved to the Okefenokee swamp. James Holt maintained the Holt line from these foundation cattle.


These were originally cattle run in the De Soto National Forest by brothers Leo and Claude Ladnier.  In the early 2000's the last two full Ladnier cows died, leaving behind less than a dozen 50% calves. Those calves are all that was left to contribute to what remains of that line.

*Ladnier and Olla Ladner were run in the same range as Hickman cattle. Separated by only a bit a of geography, These strains are closely related.

Ola Ladner

These cattle were also run in the federal woods  by Ola Ladner. These are from the same family as Ladnier, but somewhere along the line the 'i' in the name was dropped. Grandson Lionel Ladner owned the last five cows of the original pure Olla Ladner herd in 2010. Only one of the cows was horned, the rest were polled (born hornless).

*Ladnier and Olla Ladner were run in the same range as Hickman cattle. Separated by only a bit a of geography, These strains are closely related.


"The Palmer-Dunn strain of Pineywoods is named for Mrs. Muriel Palmer
Dunn of State Line, Mississippi.  She assembled together a group of
old Palmer family cattle and other Woods cattle in her area.  The two
traits that Mrs. Muriel emphasized the most were docility and pollness
(no horns).  As a widow, these two traits made it easier for her to
care for the cattle by herself.  Most of the remaining pure
Palmer-Dunn cattle are very docile and are polled.  Also, most of the
cattle are a variation of red and white, with some being either solid
red or red linebacked.  She cared for these cattle alone for many
years, but when she reached her upper 80's and could not care for them
any more, she sold them to the Overstreet-Kerr Historical Farm in
Oklahoma.  The herd was eventually purchased by Freddie Brinson near
Millen, Georgia.  He still owns the largest group of Palmer-Dunn
Pineywoods cattle."

-Information Provided by Freddie Brinson 

Read more information on Palmer Dunn history in the 2010 publication "An Overview and History of Pineywoods Cattle" HERE


Robinson cattle started as a hodgepodge of cattle collected and assembled into one herd. Today the majority of this line is maintained by Charles Simon of GA.


Seals cattle were reportedly all some variety of black/blue. Today the small remainder of Seals genetics exists only in the Diamond herd.


Thornhill cattle were of a particular family in Marion, Mississippi. Kept into the 1950's, and numbering upwards of 500, Mr and Mrs. Thornhill referred to these cattle as 'English cattle'. 


Eventually this strain got down to just one cow. The remainder of the genetics of this line only contribute to a very small number of animals. These cattle historically tended to be white with red points.

Rare breed cattle

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